Архивы рубрики ‘Industrial Dyes’

Azo Dyes

Azo dyes represent the largest group of disperse dyes for two reasons: (1) the ease with which an extraordinary number of molecular combinations can be gen­erated by varying the diazo and coupling components and (2) the relatively sim­ple process by which the dyes can be produced. With this class of dyes, manufac­turers can respond much […]

Chemical Constitution

Industrially applied disperse dyes are based on numerous chromophore systems. Approximately 60 % of all products are azo dyes, and ca. 25 % are anthraqui — none dyes, with the remainder distributed among quinophthalone, methine, naphthalimide, naphthoquinone, and nitro dyes [9]. Azo dyes are currently employed to create almost the entire range of shades; anthraquinone […]

Disperse Dyes

3.1.3 Introduction Disperse dyes are colorants with low water solubility that, in their disperse colloi­dal form, are suitable for dyeing and printing hydrophobic fibers and fabrics. Forerunners of the disperse dyes were the ionamine dyes of British Dyestuffs Corp.; these were N-methanesulfonic acids of aminoazo or aminoanthraquinone dyes that released the N -methanesulfonic acid group […]

F orms of Supply

In the past, reactive dyes were marketed mainly as powders, but recently other physical forms of these products have gained importance. Dyes are now expected to be dedusted to minimize hygiene-related problems in the workplace. More­over, the growing trend toward automated dye works has encouraged the devel­opment of more readily meterable products. Reactive dyes should […]

Metal Complex Azo Dyes Formazan Dyes C. I. Reactive Green 15 [61969-07-1 ] C. I. Reactive Blue 70 [61968-92-1 ] C. I. Reactive Blue 83 [12731-65-8] C. I. Reactive Blue 84 [12731-66-7] C. I. Reactive Blue 104 [61951-74-4] C. I. ReactiveBlue 160, 137160 [ 71872-76-9] C. I. Reactive Blue 182 [68912-12-9] C. I. ReactiveBlue 209 [110493-61-3] C. I. […]

Examples of Commercially Available Dyes

3.1.5 . 1 Azo Dyes ci ?03H /,— N— ,N=N—(‘ VNH-f N l| ‘H NK H3C Cl so3H C. I. Reactive Yellow 4 [12226-45-8] о HO A o’Nr   so3h C. I. Reactive Yellow 17, 18852 [20317-19-5] SO, H OH

Phthalocyanine Dyes [12], [37]

The water-soluble reactive phthalocyanine dyes (see Section 2.8) yield brilliant turquoise and green shades not available from any other dye category. The most important reactive phthalocyanine dyes contain copper or nickel as their central atom; they are substituted with sulfonic acid groups and also with reactive groups joined via sulfonamide bridges. An example is C. […]

Formazan Dyes [12]

Copper complexes of the formazan dye series (see Sections 2.10 and 3.11) are another alternative to reactive anthraquinone dyes; they produce red to greenish — blue shades. Like triphenodioxazine dyes, copper formazans exhibit high molar extinctions ( e = 25 000 -30 000). These materials are derived from 1-(2-hydroxyphe — nyl)-3-phenyl-5-(2-carboxyphenyl)formazan (22), in which all […]

. Triphenodioxazine Dyes

Dyes derived from the triphenodioxazine ring system (18) have been commer­cially available since 1928 when Kranzlein and coworkers discovered dyes with this basic structure augmented by sulfonic acid groups. The unsubstituted triphe­nodioxazine (which is of no importance as a colorant) was first obtained by G. Fischer in 1879 [39], and its structure 18 was elucidated […]

Metal-Complex Azo Dyes

Exceptionally lightfast colors are obtained with metal-complexed azo dyes. Cop­per complexes of o, o’ — disubstituted azo compounds produce a wide range of col­ors (yellow, ruby, violet, blue, brown, olive, black). Anthraquinone Dyes [38] Anthraquinone-based dyes are significant because of their brilliance, good light­fastness, and chromophore stability under both acidic and basic conditions. Until […]