Textiles as Rubber Reinforcements

Today, a modern medium-class vehicle contains around 250 kg of chemical materials, with plastics alone contributing 125 kg. Currently, approximately 900000 tons of polyurethanes are employed in automobile production, mainly in the manufacture ofseats, fenders and side fairings. Textiles and carpets provide comfort in the interior, while paints and underbody coatings provide an appealing appearance to the precious vehicle and protect against corrosion. The second most important material, on a quantity basis, is rubber. With textile reinforcement, this elastomer has high-perfor­mance characteristics. In modern cars, examples of rubber parts containing threads and yarns include the air-conditioning, power steering, and the brake, hydraulic and fuel hoses. Toothed belts and other drive belts contain cords (i. e. plied yarns).

Belts and hoses are flexible joints which transfer high forces and/or convey media under high pressure. Technical fabrics are tailored to the customer requirements to

Table 8.6 Properties of textile reinforced composites.

Properties determined by the rubber compound Properties determined by the reinforcement

Подпись: • Adhesion • Deformation during use • Tensile strength and elongation • Resistance to pressure or vacuum • Bursting strength Resistance to solvents

• Flexibility at low temperatures

• Resistance to ozone

• Water — and gas-proof

• Aging properties (thermal and chemical)

• Resistance to abrasion

• Flammability

• Pressure loss

become refined products that meet current market needs. Important fields of applica­tions areair-springassemblies, conveyorbelts, membranes, theabove-mentionedtires, and special fabrics.

Textile-reinforced rubber components take advantage of the properties of both, rubber and textiles (Table 8.6), which is reflected by a synergy of both.

Modern high-performance yarns and fabrics must meet the highest requirements as to physical parameters such as elongation, tenacity, shrinkage and resistance to temperatures and chemicals; moreover, they must also adhere to all rubber mixtures. The specific requirements ofthe different applications met by different types ofyarn are summarized in Table 8.7.


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