Diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) Pigments

OlofWallquist and Roman Lenz



This chapter summarizes the scientific, technological, and applicatory know-how on diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) pigments available in the literature since their first appearance in 1974 up to about mid 2006. Emphasis is placed on the chemistry, properties, and applications.


In 1974, Farnum et al. [1] briefly reported on the attempted synthesis of 2-azeti — nones 1, in accordance with Scheme 11.1.

The proposed reaction failed, however, to produce the target lactam 1. Instead, the authors isolated in 5-20% yield the diphenyl DPP derivative 2, in addition to several other by-products.

Scheme 11.1

High Performance Pigments. Edited by Edwin B. Faulkner andRussell J. Schwartz Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim ISBN: 978-3-527-31405-8

The physical properties of the DPPs such as their mp (>350 °C), high insolubi­lity, and red color remained unremarked until researchers from Ciba-Geigy (now Ciba Specialty Chemicals) took notice of this reaction in a compilation of interest­ing reactions published by Ranganathan in 1980 [2]. The chemistry and the appli — catory properties were developed [3, 4] and in 1986 the first DPP Pigment was introduced to the market. Since then, several other DPP Pigments have been de­veloped and introduced to the market for conventional pigment applications like paints, plastics, fibers, and inks. In recent years, interest in the DPP chromophore for nonconventional (“high tech”) applications has grown increasingly, and a large amount of patent applications in different areas have been filed.


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